"And I say to the grown ups, if you want to deny evolution and live in your world that’s completely inconsistent with everything we observe in the universe, thats fine, but don’t make your kids do it because we need them, we need scientifically literate voters and tax payers for the future. We need engineers that can build stuff and solve problems." - Bill Nye "The Science Guy"

"And I say to the grown ups, if you want to deny evolution and live in your world that’s completely inconsistent with everything we observe in the universe, thats fine, but don’t make your kids do it because we need them, we need scientifically literate voters and tax payers for the future. We need engineers that can build stuff and solve problems." - Bill Nye "The Science Guy"


FACT: Earth is a closed system, similar to a terrarium. All the elements present on Earth today existed during the days of Earth’s inception as well. This means that you are technically breathing the same air that dinosaurs once breathed, as well as drinking the same water that the first cells on Earth spawned in.
Something we take for granted in our day to day life is water. Although it is one of the most abundant compounds on Earth, it’s rare to find quality water. Only a third of a percent of earth’s water is drinkable; incredible considering that 70% of Earths surface is made of water. It is estimated that roughly 783 million people lack safe drinking water worldwide. On average, women of developing countries will walk 3.7 miles a day in search of water. Another 3.4 million people will die every year due to water related illness; that’s approximately the population of Los Angeles. A great portion of these shocking facts belong to developing countries, but right here in our own country, we cause great distress to natural habitats. First world countries are the most wasteful when it comes to water. An average toilet flush in America requires 8 liters of water to be consumed. A 5 minute shower will use up more water than what a person in the developing world would use in an entire day. It takes about 700 gallons of water to make a cotton shirt and almost 2,600 gallons of water to make a pair of denim jeans. Worst of all, only 1/10 of water that is used in America is treated after use. The other 90% is poured into rivers, lakes, and the ocean. Even with this immense deficiency of water, the United States alone manages to use over 340,000 million gallons of freshwater every day, and 80% of that water is used for irrigation and thermoelectric power. 
Water is very important and performs functions in our bodies that essential for life. Part of the reason that astronomers search for planets with liquid water is the plethora of functions that water serves in our bodies. Our body is made almost entirely of cells and cells are mostly water. Naturally, our bodies are 70% water. When we become thirsty, it is because we have lost only 1% of the total water in our body. When we lose 10% of the total water in our body delirium and blurred vision set in. When more than 20% is lost it will result in death. However, too much water can be intoxicating. Too much water in our system dilutes the solutions in our bodies and we don’t receive the adequate amount of nutrients required. The right amount of water could do your body a lot of benefit. It helps lubricate bones and joints for easier movement. It also regulates temperature and pH level. Incredibly, most of our water intake (the 8 cups we should drink a day) comes from many other things like food and beverages. Water is crucial to all living organisms. It transports important nutrients through the body, regulates pH and temperature, lubricates joints, and is necessary for survival. Thats why its imperative that everyone have access to clean drinking water. There are various foundations and projects that set out to provide suitable water for those who do not have it. I encourage you to support projects that help facilitate the life of those in need.   

FACT: Earth is a closed system, similar to a terrarium. All the elements present on Earth today existed during the days of Earth’s inception as well. This means that you are technically breathing the same air that dinosaurs once breathed, as well as drinking the same water that the first cells on Earth spawned in.

Something we take for granted in our day to day life is water. Although it is one of the most abundant compounds on Earth, it’s rare to find quality water. Only a third of a percent of earth’s water is drinkable; incredible considering that 70% of Earths surface is made of water. It is estimated that roughly 783 million people lack safe drinking water worldwide. On average, women of developing countries will walk 3.7 miles a day in search of water. Another 3.4 million people will die every year due to water related illness; that’s approximately the population of Los Angeles. A great portion of these shocking facts belong to developing countries, but right here in our own country, we cause great distress to natural habitats. First world countries are the most wasteful when it comes to water. An average toilet flush in America requires 8 liters of water to be consumed. A 5 minute shower will use up more water than what a person in the developing world would use in an entire day. It takes about 700 gallons of water to make a cotton shirt and almost 2,600 gallons of water to make a pair of denim jeans. Worst of all, only 1/10 of water that is used in America is treated after use. The other 90% is poured into rivers, lakes, and the ocean. Even with this immense deficiency of water, the United States alone manages to use over 340,000 million gallons of freshwater every day, and 80% of that water is used for irrigation and thermoelectric power. 

Water is very important and performs functions in our bodies that essential for life. Part of the reason that astronomers search for planets with liquid water is the plethora of functions that water serves in our bodies. Our body is made almost entirely of cells and cells are mostly water. Naturally, our bodies are 70% water. When we become thirsty, it is because we have lost only 1% of the total water in our body. When we lose 10% of the total water in our body delirium and blurred vision set in. When more than 20% is lost it will result in death. However, too much water can be intoxicating. Too much water in our system dilutes the solutions in our bodies and we don’t receive the adequate amount of nutrients required. The right amount of water could do your body a lot of benefit. It helps lubricate bones and joints for easier movement. It also regulates temperature and pH level. Incredibly, most of our water intake (the 8 cups we should drink a day) comes from many other things like food and beverages. Water is crucial to all living organisms. It transports important nutrients through the body, regulates pH and temperature, lubricates joints, and is necessary for survival. Thats why its imperative that everyone have access to clean drinking water. There are various foundations and projects that set out to provide suitable water for those who do not have it. I encourage you to support projects that help facilitate the life of those in need.   


lthmath:

Evangelista Torricelli born on 15th October 1608 was an Italian physicist and mathematician, best known for his invention of the barometer, but is also known for his advances in Optics.He is also famous for the discovery of the Torricelli’s trumpet (also - perhaps more often - known as Gabriel’s Horn) whose surface area is infinite, but whose volume is finite. This was seen as an “incredible” paradox by many at the time, including Torricelli himself, and prompted a fierce controversy about the nature of infinity, also involving the philosopher Hobbes. It is supposed by some to have led to the idea of a “completed infinity”. Torricelli tried several alternative proofs, attempting to prove that its surface area was also finite - all of which failed.

lthmath:

Evangelista Torricelli born on 15th October 1608 was an Italian physicist and mathematician, best known for his invention of the barometer, but is also known for his advances in Optics.
He is also famous for the discovery of the Torricelli’s trumpet (also - perhaps more often - known as Gabriel’s Horn) whose surface area is infinite, but whose volume is finite. This was seen as an “incredible” paradox by many at the time, including Torricelli himself, and prompted a fierce controversy about the nature of infinity, also involving the philosopher Hobbes. It is supposed by some to have led to the idea of a “completed infinity”. Torricelli tried several alternative proofs, attempting to prove that its surface area was also finite - all of which failed.


Sir Isaac Newton: English gentlemen, mathematician, physicist, science history icon, and possibly the smartest man to have ever lived. Whats next, billionaire, play boy, philanthropist? Newton’s secondary life as “the most interesting man in the world” aside,  is renowned for being, not a only a wiz at science, but is largely credited for “solely” creating calculus. However, around the same time that Newton was creating calculus so was German mathematician, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Both mathematicians claim that the other stole their work. This lead to a dispute that would last to their last days on Earth.
Disregarding their silly dispute, both these men accomplished, single-handedly, something that many college students are struggling with today. Before Newton and Leibniz, many mathematicians incidentally dabbled upon subjects of calculus such as limits, derivatives, etc. In ancient Greece (400 BC - 300 BC), Archimedes built upon a pre-existing idea called “the method of exhaustion”. The principle foreshadowed limits and would later be reinvented in ancient China to find the area of a circle. Medieval  Indians were also spectacular mathematicians. It is know that they had found the precursor to differentiation and integration. Unfortunately, they were unable to see the connection between integrals and derivatives. During the 17th century, several mathematicians, including Pierre De Fermat, were discussing the idea of derivatives. Fermat discussed a method for finding maxima, minima, and tangents to a curve that resembled differentiation. Along with Fermat, many mathematicians worked on providing proofs for theorems similar to integral calculus, meanwhile, Isaac Newton and Leibniz were building on these works to develop infinitesimal calculus and integral calculus. 
Newton began his work during the “plague years”. During his plague induced isolation, Newton began to find areas under a curve. He applied his knowledge of infinitesimals to find indefinitely small triangles with values of a function x and y.  His early works were a diamond in the rough and not entirely accurate. Newton once stated, “Errors are not to be disregarded in mathematics, no matter how small.” Newton continued his work and attempted to give calculus a more rigorous explication and framework. He exploited motion, and used calculus as a method of interpreting the physical world. 
Meanwhile, Leibniz was also working on his vision of calculus. The reason there is a lot of dispute over who created calculus is because Newton was always one who was late to publish his work, because of this, Leibniz published his first work of calculus before Newton, even though it was a well known fact that Newton had been working on integrals and differentiation well before Leibniz had even begun to wonder about it. Even so, Leibniz is given credit for a great deal of discoveries in calculus. While Newton was doing most of his math for himself, Leibniz was much more meticulous and articulate with his math, making it more understandable. Leibniz used definite variables, but Newton was changing variables day by day. Regardless of who the “real” contributor to calculus is, both these men dedicated a great portion of their life to the craft and mastery of mathematics. Not only that, but they single-handedly created an entirely new system for interpreting the physical world, and the implications of their works have carried through the centuries.
**There is a plethora of information that was omitted from this post. I strongly suggest looking more into Leibniz and Newton’ take on calculus for those who are more interested in finding out the fine details in each man’s work. 

Sir Isaac Newton: English gentlemen, mathematician, physicist, science history icon, and possibly the smartest man to have ever lived. Whats next, billionaire, play boy, philanthropist? Newton’s secondary life as “the most interesting man in the world” aside,  is renowned for being, not a only a wiz at science, but is largely credited for “solely” creating calculus. However, around the same time that Newton was creating calculus so was German mathematician, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Both mathematicians claim that the other stole their work. This lead to a dispute that would last to their last days on Earth.

Disregarding their silly dispute, both these men accomplished, single-handedly, something that many college students are struggling with today. Before Newton and Leibniz, many mathematicians incidentally dabbled upon subjects of calculus such as limits, derivatives, etc. In ancient Greece (400 BC - 300 BC), Archimedes built upon a pre-existing idea called “the method of exhaustion”. The principle foreshadowed limits and would later be reinvented in ancient China to find the area of a circle. Medieval  Indians were also spectacular mathematicians. It is know that they had found the precursor to differentiation and integration. Unfortunately, they were unable to see the connection between integrals and derivatives. During the 17th century, several mathematicians, including Pierre De Fermat, were discussing the idea of derivatives. Fermat discussed a method for finding maxima, minima, and tangents to a curve that resembled differentiation. Along with Fermat, many mathematicians worked on providing proofs for theorems similar to integral calculus, meanwhile, Isaac Newton and Leibniz were building on these works to develop infinitesimal calculus and integral calculus. 

Newton began his work during the “plague years”. During his plague induced isolation, Newton began to find areas under a curve. He applied his knowledge of infinitesimals to find indefinitely small triangles with values of a function x and y.  His early works were a diamond in the rough and not entirely accurate. Newton once stated, “Errors are not to be disregarded in mathematics, no matter how small.” Newton continued his work and attempted to give calculus a more rigorous explication and framework. He exploited motion, and used calculus as a method of interpreting the physical world. 

Meanwhile, Leibniz was also working on his vision of calculus. The reason there is a lot of dispute over who created calculus is because Newton was always one who was late to publish his work, because of this, Leibniz published his first work of calculus before Newton, even though it was a well known fact that Newton had been working on integrals and differentiation well before Leibniz had even begun to wonder about it. Even so, Leibniz is given credit for a great deal of discoveries in calculus. While Newton was doing most of his math for himself, Leibniz was much more meticulous and articulate with his math, making it more understandable. Leibniz used definite variables, but Newton was changing variables day by day. Regardless of who the “real” contributor to calculus is, both these men dedicated a great portion of their life to the craft and mastery of mathematics. Not only that, but they single-handedly created an entirely new system for interpreting the physical world, and the implications of their works have carried through the centuries.

**There is a plethora of information that was omitted from this post. I strongly suggest looking more into Leibniz and Newton’ take on calculus for those who are more interested in finding out the fine details in each man’s work. 


Did you know: If a pair of twin males marry a pair of twin females, their offsprings, although social cousins, are as genetically similar as brothers and sisters?
The process by which we reproduce is awe inspiring. Our DNA is not only “copied and pasted” from parent to child, but it is also mixed to provide genetic diversity. The field of DNA research has been expanding rapidly and not that long ago we stumbled upon something that could really turn the way we saw everything until now topsy-turvy.
XNA, or Xeno Nucleic Acid, is the first ever laboratory made storage polymer to REPRODUCE and EVOLVE. That’s a big deal. For one, this discovery could actually shed some light on what existed prior to DNA and RNA. It goes to show that it was possible for simpler storage polymers to exist before DNA and RNA. The same can be said about extraterrestrial life forms, as well.
XNA and DNA are actually very similar, the difference is that DNA is much stricter with its requirements. DNA is composed of a five-carbon sugar and there are only four possibilities for nucleotides (five if you include RNA). XNA is much more fluent. So far, there are six synthetic nucleotides, and some vary greatly from the other. They can have as little as a four carbon sugar or as many as seven and one nucleotide, FANA, even has a fluorine atom.
There are many grand applications for XNA. XNA is actually sturdier than DNA and RNA and is less susceptible to degradation from nucleases, which can be handy in genetic therapeutics, who are very short lived when done with DNA. This is just one example, but there are even more implications that I’ve yet to tell you.
Genetics is a beautiful and growing career. One of these days we’ll be able to create a life form from scratch, or maybe synthesize one thats never been seen before. That’s a little scary, but in the right hands, could potentially save millions of lives. What a wonderful time to be alive. An incredible biological breakthrough is imminent; I’m almost certain of it. 

Did you know: If a pair of twin males marry a pair of twin females, their offsprings, although social cousins, are as genetically similar as brothers and sisters?

The process by which we reproduce is awe inspiring. Our DNA is not only “copied and pasted” from parent to child, but it is also mixed to provide genetic diversity. The field of DNA research has been expanding rapidly and not that long ago we stumbled upon something that could really turn the way we saw everything until now topsy-turvy.

XNA, or Xeno Nucleic Acid, is the first ever laboratory made storage polymer to REPRODUCE and EVOLVE. That’s a big deal. For one, this discovery could actually shed some light on what existed prior to DNA and RNA. It goes to show that it was possible for simpler storage polymers to exist before DNA and RNA. The same can be said about extraterrestrial life forms, as well.

XNA and DNA are actually very similar, the difference is that DNA is much stricter with its requirements. DNA is composed of a five-carbon sugar and there are only four possibilities for nucleotides (five if you include RNA). XNA is much more fluent. So far, there are six synthetic nucleotides, and some vary greatly from the other. They can have as little as a four carbon sugar or as many as seven and one nucleotide, FANA, even has a fluorine atom.

There are many grand applications for XNA. XNA is actually sturdier than DNA and RNA and is less susceptible to degradation from nucleases, which can be handy in genetic therapeutics, who are very short lived when done with DNA. This is just one example, but there are even more implications that I’ve yet to tell you.

Genetics is a beautiful and growing career. One of these days we’ll be able to create a life form from scratch, or maybe synthesize one thats never been seen before. That’s a little scary, but in the right hands, could potentially save millions of lives. What a wonderful time to be alive. An incredible biological breakthrough is imminent; I’m almost certain of it. 


"Given enough time, hydrogen starts to wonder where it came from and where it’s going."

For those of us who don’t believe in Creationism, the dawn of man has always been a mystery, and much more elusive, was the inception of the universe. In the past century alone we have made numerous discoveries that give us some insight on how the universe was born. The Big Bang Theory is the most widely accepted theory that explains the beginning of our universe, and rightfully so. There is an extent of evidence that demonstrates that the Big Bang Theory is at least a reasonable deduction. 

According to the Big Bang Theory, our universe began as a singularity, meaning that everything that exists today was once huddled together in the smallest possible unit of space observable; literally the smallest fiber of space-time. The universe was so dense and so bustling with energy and the temperature was so high that the four fundamental forces, electromagnetism, gravitational, and weak and strong nuclear forces, were just one different fundamental force. Then suddenly, when the universe was only 10^-43 seconds old, this force caused the universe to go “bang” and it did it in a big way. But, contrary to popular belief, it didn’t go bang at all. Rather, space and time itself stretched at an inconceivable rate. This process is called “inflation”. A millionth of a second into the birth of our universe, inflation had finally stopped. The universe expanded still, just at a much slower rate. The expansion of the universe made the overall density of the universe drop significantly, as well as the temperature of the universe. This allowed the four forces to separate, and it was after this point that the raw energy of the universe materialized into matter. About a second into the big bang, you have the basics of matter: quarks, protons, neutrons, leptons, and hadrons, however, you also have their antimatter counter parts. Matter and antimatter begin to annihilate one another and ultimately matter prevails. It isn’t until about 3 minutes after that that the protons and neutrons combine to form the first simple atomic nuclei, which include hydrogen, helium, and trace amounts of other elements. Although the universe has expanded to the point where temperatures drop below the amount needed to undergo nuclear fusion, it is still very hot. So hot, that electrons still aren’t able to bond with atomic nuclei for another 377,000 years! For a period of nearly 400,000 years there was a cloud of plasma (unbound electrons) so thick that light could not pass through it. As a result, when we look 13.5 billion years into the past we can’t see anything at all because light energy could not trespass that cloud of plasma. However, recent research conducted at CERN used gravitational waves and their polarization to “map” what the inside of the plasma cloud was like. After some 150 million years, the universe has expanded significantly. Enough for individual clusters of masses to collapse due to mutual gravitational attraction and form the first stars and quasars. These first stars were incredibly massive and they were the ones that used the simple elements created during the big bang to create more complex elements. These enormous stars then went supernova creating even more complex elements during the explosion. These elements were then dispersed throughout the universe to be used again by other stars. A billion years later, galaxies begin to form. Approximately 9 billion years into the formation of our universe, and a lot of star dust recycling, our solar system is born. It was 4.6 billion years ago when massive amounts of dust, gas, and space debris collapsed into itself to form the Sun and the 9 planets and so began a new epoch in the history of the universe… the birth of life.

What’s really impressive about the big bang theory is the amount of evidence it has as opposed to other theories. 

One of the biggest pieces of evidence that supports the Big Bang Theory is the presence of Cosmic Background Radiation, or CBR for short. CBR is ubiquitous in the universe; it’s present at all times even though there isn’t an obvious source. It turns out that CBR is residual radiation from the big bang that has traveled across the universe since the dawn of time. This radiation actually gives space a temperature of ~2.7 Kelvin when really empty space should be nearer to absolute zero. What’s even crazier, is that when making calculations, the scientists plugged in the temperature of space along with the wavelength of the CBR and it all checked out fine. The energy present during the beginning of the big bang and the remnant energy coincide with one another.

Another piece of evidence is the noticeable redshift of distant galaxies. Redshift is part of what is known as the “Doppler Effect” (see gif 3). Ever notice how a police car’s siren when moving towards you sounds a little higher pitched than when moving away from you? That’s because a moving object approaches the waves in front of it while it moves away from the waves behind it. In sound waves, this causes a change in frequency, which is pitch. When it comes to light waves, it changes the frequency, but a change in frequency would imply a change in color. So, because of the Doppler Effect, objects moving away from a point of reference will be redshifted because the frequency will be lower and the wavelength will be larger. Objects moving towards a point of reference will blue shifted since it has a higher frequency and a shorter wavelength. Back in the mid 1900’s when Edwin Hubble was studying galaxies, he noticed that their colors were more inclined to the red side of the spectrum meaning that they were generally moving away from a common point. 

The strongest evidence yet comes from the people at CERN who were working on a project called BICEP. This project allowed us to peer further back into time than every before. By studying the polarization of gravitational waves found in CBR, scientists were able to deduce that there was indeed a period of rapid expansion in the history of the universe.

The last sample of evidence comes from cold hard math. Using equations and strict calculations, scientists hypothesized the amount of matter that should be in existence today. They gathered these numbers from the hypothesized models of the big bang, and what’s fascinating about it is that the calculations were almost on point. Pretty incredible considering that we can almost prove how the universe was made, simply by using numbers.

Although the Big Bang Theory is the most widely accepted theory, it  still isn’t complete. I hope to see the day where we finally solve these mysteries and look at each other like “why did we think of this before!” Let’s look forward to a better tomorrow, one where we can understand the events of yesterday.


So you like chemistry puns…

belleandthetardis:

ischemgeek:

captainriz:

imageimageimageimageimageimageimageimageimageimageimageimageimageimageimageimageimageimageimage

Abbot and Costello meets chemistry.

captaincassbutt

(via acarbonbasedlifeform)


Although dark matter makes up 25% of all matter in the universe, dark energy makes up a stunning 70%, while all other “normal” matter makes up ~5%. Dark energy is much more elusive than dark matter. We only know about dark energy because the math doesn’t add up. There are three possibilities for the future of the universe, Open, Flat, or Closed. In an open universe, the density of the universe is less than the “critical density”, or the precise density required to stop the expansion of the universe, and the universe will continue to expand indefinitely. In a flat universe, the density of the universe is the same at the critical density and the expansion of the universe will progressively become slower and slower. Lastly, a closed universe is one where the density of the universe is greater than the critical density causing the universe to slow down, stop, and ultimately begin to retract to form a “cosmic egg” or something similar to a singularity. In the late 20th century, scientists didn’t know which could be the outcome of the universe but they were, however, fairly certain that at some point the universe would have to slow down to some degree. Until 1998 when the Hubble Telescope captured a very distant supernova. It showed that the universe had actually been expanding slower in the past than it is now, implying that the expansion of the universe has actually ACCELERATED. Einstein was the first to consider an invisible force. In the early 1900’s when Einstein was created the theory of relativity, he included in his gravitational equation a “cosmological constant”. He believed that empty space was not completely empty and had a mysterious force that combatted gravity. He thought that space possessed this cosmological constant and if space were to expand and be created, the cosmological constant would become more prevalent than gravity and the expansion of space would accelerate. So we know that there is a force affecting the cosmos where there shouldn’t but we still don’t know anything about it like how, why, or even what exactly. There are many theories to explain this but none of them come close to answering what dark energy is. One such theory is the quantum matter theory that suggests that space is actually full of temporary “virtual” particles that appear and disappear into existence. But when scientist calculated the force that this would created they were off by a margin of 10^120 times too big! Scientist then took a different approach known as Quintessence which would be a new fluid or field whose presence had not been detected before, but even then, that answers very little about dark energy. There also exists the theory of a dynamic quantum vacuum, which is the most satisfying explanation so far even though it has a lot of plot holes. The last alternative would be assuming that Einstein’s theories of gravitation were actually incorrect. There’s no way of knowing which is true just yet, we can only keep on studying to further our knowledge of the cosmos. 

Although dark matter makes up 25% of all matter in the universe, dark energy makes up a stunning 70%, while all other “normal” matter makes up ~5%. Dark energy is much more elusive than dark matter. We only know about dark energy because the math doesn’t add up. There are three possibilities for the future of the universe, Open, Flat, or Closed. In an open universe, the density of the universe is less than the “critical density”, or the precise density required to stop the expansion of the universe, and the universe will continue to expand indefinitely. In a flat universe, the density of the universe is the same at the critical density and the expansion of the universe will progressively become slower and slower. Lastly, a closed universe is one where the density of the universe is greater than the critical density causing the universe to slow down, stop, and ultimately begin to retract to form a “cosmic egg” or something similar to a singularity. In the late 20th century, scientists didn’t know which could be the outcome of the universe but they were, however, fairly certain that at some point the universe would have to slow down to some degree. Until 1998 when the Hubble Telescope captured a very distant supernova. It showed that the universe had actually been expanding slower in the past than it is now, implying that the expansion of the universe has actually ACCELERATED. Einstein was the first to consider an invisible force. In the early 1900’s when Einstein was created the theory of relativity, he included in his gravitational equation a “cosmological constant”. He believed that empty space was not completely empty and had a mysterious force that combatted gravity. He thought that space possessed this cosmological constant and if space were to expand and be created, the cosmological constant would become more prevalent than gravity and the expansion of space would accelerate. So we know that there is a force affecting the cosmos where there shouldn’t but we still don’t know anything about it like how, why, or even what exactly. There are many theories to explain this but none of them come close to answering what dark energy is. One such theory is the quantum matter theory that suggests that space is actually full of temporary “virtual” particles that appear and disappear into existence. But when scientist calculated the force that this would created they were off by a margin of 10^120 times too big! Scientist then took a different approach known as Quintessence which would be a new fluid or field whose presence had not been detected before, but even then, that answers very little about dark energy. There also exists the theory of a dynamic quantum vacuum, which is the most satisfying explanation so far even though it has a lot of plot holes. The last alternative would be assuming that Einstein’s theories of gravitation were actually incorrect. There’s no way of knowing which is true just yet, we can only keep on studying to further our knowledge of the cosmos. 


The universe is so beautifully detailed and reaches so far. We can see great distances but can only see very little. There’s a lot that we have learned about the universe but the more we learn the less we realize that we know about it. Modern astronomers and astrophysicists are perplexed with the existence of dark matter and dark energy. Dark matter, a theoretical substance, does not emit or reflect any light, yet it’s mass influences other matter nearby. Scientists estimate the universe to be 25% dark matter. Pretty stunning assumption considering that they haven’t seen any yet. Scientists first “discovered” dark matter when observing distant galaxies. Using math and physics equation they estimated that the center of a spiral galaxy would spin faster than the outer most parts; this seems only logical. However, the results showed that all segments of the spiral galaxy were traveling at the same velocity… How does something that is tens to hundreds of lightyears away from the center of mass travel at the same speed as something that is so much closer? The math was completely thrown off kilter. Einstein deduced that large bodies of mass could bend space and distort light, forming a gravitational lens, depending on how massive they are. Scientists who observed massive galaxies noticed that the distortion was much greater than anticipated, meaning that there was A LOT of hidden mass some where. Very little is known about dark matter aside that it enforces its mass on other objects. There is some speculation towards its make up. Some scientists suspect that it may be a form of baryonic matter while others argue much more fantastic ideas, like that it maybe be exotic matter, or extra-dimensional matter. It is certain, however, that it is NOT antimatter; it does not exhibit gamma rays the same way antimatter does when it annihilates itself with regular matter. Dark matter is an interesting subject. There’s strong evidence of its existence, yet it’s difficult to prove its even there since it does not interact with any electromagnetic force (light). Hopefully, in the years to come there will be more discoveries regarding dark matter.

The universe is so beautifully detailed and reaches so far. We can see great distances but can only see very little. There’s a lot that we have learned about the universe but the more we learn the less we realize that we know about it. Modern astronomers and astrophysicists are perplexed with the existence of dark matter and dark energy. Dark matter, a theoretical substance, does not emit or reflect any light, yet it’s mass influences other matter nearby. Scientists estimate the universe to be 25% dark matter. Pretty stunning assumption considering that they haven’t seen any yet. Scientists first “discovered” dark matter when observing distant galaxies. Using math and physics equation they estimated that the center of a spiral galaxy would spin faster than the outer most parts; this seems only logical. However, the results showed that all segments of the spiral galaxy were traveling at the same velocity… How does something that is tens to hundreds of lightyears away from the center of mass travel at the same speed as something that is so much closer? The math was completely thrown off kilter. Einstein deduced that large bodies of mass could bend space and distort light, forming a gravitational lens, depending on how massive they are. Scientists who observed massive galaxies noticed that the distortion was much greater than anticipated, meaning that there was A LOT of hidden mass some where. Very little is known about dark matter aside that it enforces its mass on other objects. There is some speculation towards its make up. Some scientists suspect that it may be a form of baryonic matter while others argue much more fantastic ideas, like that it maybe be exotic matter, or extra-dimensional matter. It is certain, however, that it is NOT antimatter; it does not exhibit gamma rays the same way antimatter does when it annihilates itself with regular matter. Dark matter is an interesting subject. There’s strong evidence of its existence, yet it’s difficult to prove its even there since it does not interact with any electromagnetic force (light). Hopefully, in the years to come there will be more discoveries regarding dark matter.


Q
Get a formula to become cool
A

What’s that? C/1 + O^2 + L= (M/E)? Is that it?