Did you know: If a pair of twin males marry a pair of twin females, their offsprings, although social cousins, are as genetically similar as brothers and sisters?
The process by which we reproduce is awe inspiring. Our DNA is not only “copied and pasted” from parent to child, but it is also mixed to provide genetic diversity. The field of DNA research has been expanding rapidly and not that long ago we stumbled upon something that could really turn the way we saw everything until now topsy-turvy.
XNA, or Xeno Nucleic Acid, is the first ever laboratory made storage polymer to REPRODUCE and EVOLVE. That’s a big deal. For one, this discovery could actually shed some light on what existed prior to DNA and RNA. It goes to show that it was possible for simpler storage polymers to exist before DNA and RNA. The same can be said about extraterrestrial life forms, as well.
XNA and DNA are actually very similar, the difference is that DNA is much stricter with its requirements. DNA is composed of a five-carbon sugar and there are only four possibilities for nucleotides (five if you include RNA). XNA is much more fluent. So far, there are six synthetic nucleotides, and some vary greatly from the other. They can have as little as a four carbon sugar or as many as seven and one nucleotide, FANA, even has a fluorine atom.
There are many grand applications for XNA. XNA is actually sturdier than DNA and RNA and is less susceptible to degradation from nucleases, which can be handy in genetic therapeutics, who are very short lived when done with DNA. This is just one example, but there are even more implications that I’ve yet to tell you.
Genetics is a beautiful and growing career. One of these days we’ll be able to create a life form from scratch, or maybe synthesize one thats never been seen before. That’s a little scary, but in the right hands, could potentially save millions of lives. What a wonderful time to be alive. An incredible biological breakthrough is imminent; I’m almost certain of it. 

Did you know: If a pair of twin males marry a pair of twin females, their offsprings, although social cousins, are as genetically similar as brothers and sisters?

The process by which we reproduce is awe inspiring. Our DNA is not only “copied and pasted” from parent to child, but it is also mixed to provide genetic diversity. The field of DNA research has been expanding rapidly and not that long ago we stumbled upon something that could really turn the way we saw everything until now topsy-turvy.

XNA, or Xeno Nucleic Acid, is the first ever laboratory made storage polymer to REPRODUCE and EVOLVE. That’s a big deal. For one, this discovery could actually shed some light on what existed prior to DNA and RNA. It goes to show that it was possible for simpler storage polymers to exist before DNA and RNA. The same can be said about extraterrestrial life forms, as well.

XNA and DNA are actually very similar, the difference is that DNA is much stricter with its requirements. DNA is composed of a five-carbon sugar and there are only four possibilities for nucleotides (five if you include RNA). XNA is much more fluent. So far, there are six synthetic nucleotides, and some vary greatly from the other. They can have as little as a four carbon sugar or as many as seven and one nucleotide, FANA, even has a fluorine atom.

There are many grand applications for XNA. XNA is actually sturdier than DNA and RNA and is less susceptible to degradation from nucleases, which can be handy in genetic therapeutics, who are very short lived when done with DNA. This is just one example, but there are even more implications that I’ve yet to tell you.

Genetics is a beautiful and growing career. One of these days we’ll be able to create a life form from scratch, or maybe synthesize one thats never been seen before. That’s a little scary, but in the right hands, could potentially save millions of lives. What a wonderful time to be alive. An incredible biological breakthrough is imminent; I’m almost certain of it. 


"Given enough time, hydrogen starts to wonder where it came from and where it’s going."

For those of us who don’t believe in Creationism, the dawn of man has always been a mystery, and much more elusive, was the inception of the universe. In the past century alone we have made numerous discoveries that give us some insight on how the universe was born. The Big Bang Theory is the most widely accepted theory that explains the beginning of our universe, and rightfully so. There is an extent of evidence that demonstrates that the Big Bang Theory is at least a reasonable deduction. 

According to the Big Bang Theory, our universe began as a singularity, meaning that everything that exists today was once huddled together in the smallest possible unit of space observable; literally the smallest fiber of space-time. The universe was so dense and so bustling with energy and the temperature was so high that the four fundamental forces, electromagnetism, gravitational, and weak and strong nuclear forces, were just one different fundamental force. Then suddenly, when the universe was only 10^-43 seconds old, this force caused the universe to go “bang” and it did it in a big way. But, contrary to popular belief, it didn’t go bang at all. Rather, space and time itself stretched at an inconceivable rate. This process is called “inflation”. A millionth of a second into the birth of our universe, inflation had finally stopped. The universe expanded still, just at a much slower rate. The expansion of the universe made the overall density of the universe drop significantly, as well as the temperature of the universe. This allowed the four forces to separate, and it was after this point that the raw energy of the universe materialized into matter. About a second into the big bang, you have the basics of matter: quarks, protons, neutrons, leptons, and hadrons, however, you also have their antimatter counter parts. Matter and antimatter begin to annihilate one another and ultimately matter prevails. It isn’t until about 3 minutes after that that the protons and neutrons combine to form the first simple atomic nuclei, which include hydrogen, helium, and trace amounts of other elements. Although the universe has expanded to the point where temperatures drop below the amount needed to undergo nuclear fusion, it is still very hot. So hot, that electrons still aren’t able to bond with atomic nuclei for another 377,000 years! For a period of nearly 400,000 years there was a cloud of plasma (unbound electrons) so thick that light could not pass through it. As a result, when we look 13.5 billion years into the past we can’t see anything at all because light energy could not trespass that cloud of plasma. However, recent research conducted at CERN used gravitational waves and their polarization to “map” what the inside of the plasma cloud was like. After some 150 million years, the universe has expanded significantly. Enough for individual clusters of masses to collapse due to mutual gravitational attraction and form the first stars and quasars. These first stars were incredibly massive and they were the ones that used the simple elements created during the big bang to create more complex elements. These enormous stars then went supernova creating even more complex elements during the explosion. These elements were then dispersed throughout the universe to be used again by other stars. A billion years later, galaxies begin to form. Approximately 9 billion years into the formation of our universe, and a lot of star dust recycling, our solar system is born. It was 4.6 billion years ago when massive amounts of dust, gas, and space debris collapsed into itself to form the Sun and the 9 planets and so began a new epoch in the history of the universe… the birth of life.

What’s really impressive about the big bang theory is the amount of evidence it has as opposed to other theories. 

One of the biggest pieces of evidence that supports the Big Bang Theory is the presence of Cosmic Background Radiation, or CBR for short. CBR is ubiquitous in the universe; it’s present at all times even though there isn’t an obvious source. It turns out that CBR is residual radiation from the big bang that has traveled across the universe since the dawn of time. This radiation actually gives space a temperature of ~2.7 Kelvin when really empty space should be nearer to absolute zero. What’s even crazier, is that when making calculations, the scientists plugged in the temperature of space along with the wavelength of the CBR and it all checked out fine. The energy present during the beginning of the big bang and the remnant energy coincide with one another.

Another piece of evidence is the noticeable redshift of distant galaxies. Redshift is part of what is known as the “Doppler Effect” (see gif 3). Ever notice how a police car’s siren when moving towards you sounds a little higher pitched than when moving away from you? That’s because a moving object approaches the waves in front of it while it moves away from the waves behind it. In sound waves, this causes a change in frequency, which is pitch. When it comes to light waves, it changes the frequency, but a change in frequency would imply a change in color. So, because of the Doppler Effect, objects moving away from a point of reference will be redshifted because the frequency will be lower and the wavelength will be larger. Objects moving towards a point of reference will blue shifted since it has a higher frequency and a shorter wavelength. Back in the mid 1900’s when Edwin Hubble was studying galaxies, he noticed that their colors were more inclined to the red side of the spectrum meaning that they were generally moving away from a common point. 

The strongest evidence yet comes from the people at CERN who were working on a project called BICEP. This project allowed us to peer further back into time than every before. By studying the polarization of gravitational waves found in CBR, scientists were able to deduce that there was indeed a period of rapid expansion in the history of the universe.

The last sample of evidence comes from cold hard math. Using equations and strict calculations, scientists hypothesized the amount of matter that should be in existence today. They gathered these numbers from the hypothesized models of the big bang, and what’s fascinating about it is that the calculations were almost on point. Pretty incredible considering that we can almost prove how the universe was made, simply by using numbers.

Although the Big Bang Theory is the most widely accepted theory, it  still isn’t complete. I hope to see the day where we finally solve these mysteries and look at each other like “why did we think of this before!” Let’s look forward to a better tomorrow, one where we can understand the events of yesterday.


So you like chemistry puns…

belleandthetardis:

ischemgeek:

captainriz:

imageimageimageimageimageimageimageimageimageimageimageimageimageimageimageimageimageimageimage

Abbot and Costello meets chemistry.

captaincassbutt

(via acarbonbasedlifeform)


Although dark matter makes up 25% of all matter in the universe, dark energy makes up a stunning 70%, while all other “normal” matter makes up ~5%. Dark energy is much more elusive than dark matter. We only know about dark energy because the math doesn’t add up. There are three possibilities for the future of the universe, Open, Flat, or Closed. In an open universe, the density of the universe is less than the “critical density”, or the precise density required to stop the expansion of the universe, and the universe will continue to expand indefinitely. In a flat universe, the density of the universe is the same at the critical density and the expansion of the universe will progressively become slower and slower. Lastly, a closed universe is one where the density of the universe is greater than the critical density causing the universe to slow down, stop, and ultimately begin to retract to form a “cosmic egg” or something similar to a singularity. In the late 20th century, scientists didn’t know which could be the outcome of the universe but they were, however, fairly certain that at some point the universe would have to slow down to some degree. Until 1998 when the Hubble Telescope captured a very distant supernova. It showed that the universe had actually been expanding slower in the past than it is now, implying that the expansion of the universe has actually ACCELERATED. Einstein was the first to consider an invisible force. In the early 1900’s when Einstein was created the theory of relativity, he included in his gravitational equation a “cosmological constant”. He believed that empty space was not completely empty and had a mysterious force that combatted gravity. He thought that space possessed this cosmological constant and if space were to expand and be created, the cosmological constant would become more prevalent than gravity and the expansion of space would accelerate. So we know that there is a force affecting the cosmos where there shouldn’t but we still don’t know anything about it like how, why, or even what exactly. There are many theories to explain this but none of them come close to answering what dark energy is. One such theory is the quantum matter theory that suggests that space is actually full of temporary “virtual” particles that appear and disappear into existence. But when scientist calculated the force that this would created they were off by a margin of 10^120 times too big! Scientist then took a different approach known as Quintessence which would be a new fluid or field whose presence had not been detected before, but even then, that answers very little about dark energy. There also exists the theory of a dynamic quantum vacuum, which is the most satisfying explanation so far even though it has a lot of plot holes. The last alternative would be assuming that Einstein’s theories of gravitation were actually incorrect. There’s no way of knowing which is true just yet, we can only keep on studying to further our knowledge of the cosmos. 

Although dark matter makes up 25% of all matter in the universe, dark energy makes up a stunning 70%, while all other “normal” matter makes up ~5%. Dark energy is much more elusive than dark matter. We only know about dark energy because the math doesn’t add up. There are three possibilities for the future of the universe, Open, Flat, or Closed. In an open universe, the density of the universe is less than the “critical density”, or the precise density required to stop the expansion of the universe, and the universe will continue to expand indefinitely. In a flat universe, the density of the universe is the same at the critical density and the expansion of the universe will progressively become slower and slower. Lastly, a closed universe is one where the density of the universe is greater than the critical density causing the universe to slow down, stop, and ultimately begin to retract to form a “cosmic egg” or something similar to a singularity. In the late 20th century, scientists didn’t know which could be the outcome of the universe but they were, however, fairly certain that at some point the universe would have to slow down to some degree. Until 1998 when the Hubble Telescope captured a very distant supernova. It showed that the universe had actually been expanding slower in the past than it is now, implying that the expansion of the universe has actually ACCELERATED. Einstein was the first to consider an invisible force. In the early 1900’s when Einstein was created the theory of relativity, he included in his gravitational equation a “cosmological constant”. He believed that empty space was not completely empty and had a mysterious force that combatted gravity. He thought that space possessed this cosmological constant and if space were to expand and be created, the cosmological constant would become more prevalent than gravity and the expansion of space would accelerate. So we know that there is a force affecting the cosmos where there shouldn’t but we still don’t know anything about it like how, why, or even what exactly. There are many theories to explain this but none of them come close to answering what dark energy is. One such theory is the quantum matter theory that suggests that space is actually full of temporary “virtual” particles that appear and disappear into existence. But when scientist calculated the force that this would created they were off by a margin of 10^120 times too big! Scientist then took a different approach known as Quintessence which would be a new fluid or field whose presence had not been detected before, but even then, that answers very little about dark energy. There also exists the theory of a dynamic quantum vacuum, which is the most satisfying explanation so far even though it has a lot of plot holes. The last alternative would be assuming that Einstein’s theories of gravitation were actually incorrect. There’s no way of knowing which is true just yet, we can only keep on studying to further our knowledge of the cosmos. 


The universe is so beautifully detailed and reaches so far. We can see great distances but can only see very little. There’s a lot that we have learned about the universe but the more we learn the less we realize that we know about it. Modern astronomers and astrophysicists are perplexed with the existence of dark matter and dark energy. Dark matter, a theoretical substance, does not emit or reflect any light, yet it’s mass influences other matter nearby. Scientists estimate the universe to be 25% dark matter. Pretty stunning assumption considering that they haven’t seen any yet. Scientists first “discovered” dark matter when observing distant galaxies. Using math and physics equation they estimated that the center of a spiral galaxy would spin faster than the outer most parts; this seems only logical. However, the results showed that all segments of the spiral galaxy were traveling at the same velocity… How does something that is tens to hundreds of lightyears away from the center of mass travel at the same speed as something that is so much closer? The math was completely thrown off kilter. Einstein deduced that large bodies of mass could bend space and distort light, forming a gravitational lens, depending on how massive they are. Scientists who observed massive galaxies noticed that the distortion was much greater than anticipated, meaning that there was A LOT of hidden mass some where. Very little is known about dark matter aside that it enforces its mass on other objects. There is some speculation towards its make up. Some scientists suspect that it may be a form of baryonic matter while others argue much more fantastic ideas, like that it maybe be exotic matter, or extra-dimensional matter. It is certain, however, that it is NOT antimatter; it does not exhibit gamma rays the same way antimatter does when it annihilates itself with regular matter. Dark matter is an interesting subject. There’s strong evidence of its existence, yet it’s difficult to prove its even there since it does not interact with any electromagnetic force (light). Hopefully, in the years to come there will be more discoveries regarding dark matter.

The universe is so beautifully detailed and reaches so far. We can see great distances but can only see very little. There’s a lot that we have learned about the universe but the more we learn the less we realize that we know about it. Modern astronomers and astrophysicists are perplexed with the existence of dark matter and dark energy. Dark matter, a theoretical substance, does not emit or reflect any light, yet it’s mass influences other matter nearby. Scientists estimate the universe to be 25% dark matter. Pretty stunning assumption considering that they haven’t seen any yet. Scientists first “discovered” dark matter when observing distant galaxies. Using math and physics equation they estimated that the center of a spiral galaxy would spin faster than the outer most parts; this seems only logical. However, the results showed that all segments of the spiral galaxy were traveling at the same velocity… How does something that is tens to hundreds of lightyears away from the center of mass travel at the same speed as something that is so much closer? The math was completely thrown off kilter. Einstein deduced that large bodies of mass could bend space and distort light, forming a gravitational lens, depending on how massive they are. Scientists who observed massive galaxies noticed that the distortion was much greater than anticipated, meaning that there was A LOT of hidden mass some where. Very little is known about dark matter aside that it enforces its mass on other objects. There is some speculation towards its make up. Some scientists suspect that it may be a form of baryonic matter while others argue much more fantastic ideas, like that it maybe be exotic matter, or extra-dimensional matter. It is certain, however, that it is NOT antimatter; it does not exhibit gamma rays the same way antimatter does when it annihilates itself with regular matter. Dark matter is an interesting subject. There’s strong evidence of its existence, yet it’s difficult to prove its even there since it does not interact with any electromagnetic force (light). Hopefully, in the years to come there will be more discoveries regarding dark matter.


Q
Get a formula to become cool
A

What’s that? C/1 + O^2 + L= (M/E)? Is that it?


Q
Hey there, Do you have any tips on liking math? I was good enough to graduate high school & I'm interested in it's uses, but I've no desire for it itself.. I design stuff with it (CAD) but I could careless about #'s, any tips would be appreciated
A

Math is like an art form. In order to like it you have to appreciate it for it’s raw value. Don’t bother yourself and and worry yourself with the fact that you might have to do a lot of work. Just like art, each stroke might me difficult and painting a picture may be tedious, but the end result will be beautiful. And just like art it’s not about how perfect it comes out. It’s about doing it and being proud at the end that you’re capable of it. I hope that helps


"Math is the dialect of the universe"…. What does that even mean? There are things we observe in the universe and sometimes we don’t always understand them. Thats why we invented math. Math is the manual of the universe. A guide to help us understand why things happen the way they do. The universe threw countless mysteries at us and we honed those mysteries using numbers. Numbers interpret the way the universe works and translates it so that we can understand the universe. It is the “google translate” of everything. We didn’t give quantitive values to things that were qualitative. The universe did. We, however, deciphered the code that the universe had set forth and did it without every using a single word. Math is to real life as binary is to computers. It’s the encryption of how things should happen, and it follows that code down to the letter. Thats because the universe IS math. Math teaches us to learn the ways of everything. There is so much underlying wisdom in math. So much latent potential in math. 

Math is… underrated. From now on, rather than trying to memorize x and y or the quadratic equation, learn that x and y are values that are susceptible to change and that the quadratic equation represents a pattern that YOU can use to your advantage. Math is a tool more valuable than any other. Learn to use it


Q
>:D I am sasoriiiiiii
A

Heyyyyyyyy tumblr buddiessss


FACT: If you lined all planets end to end they could almost fit between the distance of earth and the moon. Distance of all planets lined up end to end: 241,056 miles 
Distance between earth and moon: 238,900 miles

Speaking of planets, there are plans to make settlements on Mars in the year 2023. However, unfortunately for the Mars One crew, they will never be able to return to Earth. It’s not because thy will be carrying deadly pathogens or perhaps harboring stowaway Martians, but rather, it’s physically impossible for them to do so. Mars itself will have a devastating effect in their body. Something we take for granted, gravity, will be the biggest detriment to their health. The muscles in our legs are largely sculpted by the force of gravity. Subconsciously when we stand and walk we are combating the forces of gravity. As a result muscles in the legs and near the back developed support for the spine. In a weightless environment, those muscle deteriorate and the spine becomes vulnerable. When studying rats in environments void of gravity, they found that more than a third of muscle mass in the quads was lost within 9 days. Our skeletal integrity is also largely influenced by gravity. Our body cleverly sculpts itself in order to fight gravity to reduce strain on our bones. Without the presence of gravity, our bones lose the architectural finesse it requires and this induces osteoporosis. 99% of calcium in our bodies is found on our bones. Most of this calcium is not being used and begins to circulate through the body, further becoming a hinderance.
There are even more health risks and problems involved but the list is too long. Visit http://www.wired.com/2014/02/happens-body-mars/ for more details. 

TL;DR : Mars is scary and gravity is important.

FACT: If you lined all planets end to end they could almost fit between the distance of earth and the moon. Distance of all planets lined up end to end: 241,056 miles
Distance between earth and moon: 238,900 miles

Speaking of planets, there are plans to make settlements on Mars in the year 2023. However, unfortunately for the Mars One crew, they will never be able to return to Earth. It’s not because thy will be carrying deadly pathogens or perhaps harboring stowaway Martians, but rather, it’s physically impossible for them to do so. Mars itself will have a devastating effect in their body. Something we take for granted, gravity, will be the biggest detriment to their health. The muscles in our legs are largely sculpted by the force of gravity. Subconsciously when we stand and walk we are combating the forces of gravity. As a result muscles in the legs and near the back developed support for the spine. In a weightless environment, those muscle deteriorate and the spine becomes vulnerable. When studying rats in environments void of gravity, they found that more than a third of muscle mass in the quads was lost within 9 days. Our skeletal integrity is also largely influenced by gravity. Our body cleverly sculpts itself in order to fight gravity to reduce strain on our bones. Without the presence of gravity, our bones lose the architectural finesse it requires and this induces osteoporosis. 99% of calcium in our bodies is found on our bones. Most of this calcium is not being used and begins to circulate through the body, further becoming a hinderance.
There are even more health risks and problems involved but the list is too long. Visit http://www.wired.com/2014/02/happens-body-mars/ for more details.

TL;DR : Mars is scary and gravity is important.